In the Excel Sheet many details can be specified. For a mill newbie it is quite difficult to come up with the proper terms, and therefore the following definition list is provided.

Windmill sails

Latticed cloth sails The sails are covered with clothes.
Boarded sails The sails are covered by wooden boards.
Shuttered sails The shutters can be opened and closed to adjust to the available wind.
Bilau sails Modern very efficient sails.
Lateen sails Mostly used in the Mediterranean.

Windmill types

Tjasker Small windmill which pumps the water with an archimedean screw.
Post mill A post mill stands on a post, around which the mill body can be turned.
Paltrok mill Similar to a post mill, but here the mill body turns on a rail ring.
Hollow post mill The upper part of the mill with the sails can be turned to face the wind, the lower part is static. The main shaft is surrounded by hollow post.
Tower mill The body of the mill looks like a stone tower, the cap can't be turned.
(Octagonal or hexagonal) Smock mill Smock mills have a cap that can be turned.
Mound mill This smock mill stands on a little wall.
Gallery mill This smock mill has a wooden gallery.
American windmill As known from western movies.

Waterwheel types

Shroud-and-float wheel This waterwheel has straigth scoops which are fixed at the left and right by wooden rims.
Start-and-float wheel This type has straigth scoops, is undershot and made of wood.
Sagebien wheel The wheel has many straight scoops which are little twisted towards the outside. Very rare wheel type.
Poncelet wheel This wheel  has bent scoops which are fixed at the left and right by rims. Classic Poncelet wheels have a slantwise sliding shutter and are undershot. Quite rare to find.
Zuppinger wheel The scoops are bent. This wheel type can be undershot and breastshot. A very common water wheel.
Turas wheel The axis is mounted only on one site.
Horizontal wheel Mainly found in steep regions.

Turbine types

Francis turbine The most common type of turbine.
Pelton turbine The Pelton turbine looks a bit like a waterwheel. They are used on place with a large slope, such as in the mountains.
Kaplan turbine The Kaplan turbine looks like the screw of a ship. This type is mainly used where the water level is banked-up, and there are large amounts of water and little slope.
Ossberger or Banki turbine This type ist he second most commonly used after the Francis turbine.
Fontaine turbine This type is almost extincted.
Schwamkrug turbine The water is guided to the center of the turbine via a pressure pipe.


Overshot wheel The water is guided on the wheel at the top. A very efficient type.
Alpine overshot wheel The water is guided on the wheel at the top by means of a sloping head race. The water wheel uses both the force of gravity and the percusive energy.
Backshot wheel Same principle as the overshot wheel. As the water enters the wheel just before the wheel shaft, it will turn backwards.
Breastshot wheel With this type, the water enters the waterwheel at the level of the wheel shaft
Undershot wheel The water is guided to the lower part of the wheel. Therefore, it mainly uses the percusive energy, which is rather inefficient.
Boat mill Basically an anchored boat with the mill machinery inside and a waterwheel driven by the waterstream.
Tide mill This mill type can be found close to the sea, as it uses the differences between low and high tide water levels.

Other mills

Animal-driven mill An animal (a horse, a mule or sometimes even a dog) runs around in a circle and drives the mill.
Man-driven or handmill In the less developed parts of the world many handmills are still in use.